Thursday, January 23, 2020

Resistance to Slavery and Race Oppression Essays -- Slave Resistance

Resistance to Slavery and Race Oppression   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Slavery in the early eighteenth century was horrible for African Americans. Men were being killed, women were being raped and children were being sold. To avoid the unjust treatment of slavery, slaves did the unthinkable. Some ran away, others killed their masters, and women even killed their own children. What were they trying to accomplish by this? Resistance. In the modern reinterpretation of slavery, considerable attention has been devoted to the subject of slave resistance. Earlier observers argued that such slave characteristics as clumsiness, slovenliness, listleness, destructiveness, and inability to learn indicated racial inferiority. Recent studies of slavery attribute these observed characteristics to the slaves, defiant determination to resist slavery’s worst manifestations and to make the institution as livable as possible. Slaves recognized that they could take day-to-day action on an individual or small group basis, engaging in what historian s has termed â€Å"personal or communal foot dragging.† Such resistance successfully thwarted the master’s attempt to gain total control over their lives.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The extent and success of this day-to-day resistance depended upon the support of a strong and close-knit slave community. Despite white society’s belief that slaves were nothing more than laborers, they were in fact part of an elaborate and well defined social structure that gave them identity and sustained them in their silent protest. In slave quarters, slaves expressed themselves with relative freedom from white interference.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Religion provided a similar support. By attending their own church, whether openly or in secret, slaves fashioned a Christianity that emphasized salvation for all peoples, slaves included, and promised rewards in the afterlife. In church, blacks assumed leadership roles and openly expressed feelings they usually suppress. Masters tried to use religion negatively to teach slaves obedience and duty; slaves used it positively as an affirmation of their self worth and as a promise of future.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Their community provided slaves with the chance to be among their own people, to express themselves, to develop their own culture, and to have control over some portions of their own lives. These opportunities were limited and varied greatly, but the ability to be fathers or mothers, ... ...w prohibiting slaves from handling medicines.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Slaves also mutilated themselves to avoid work, punishment, or sale. They cut off fingers, hands, toes, or feet, and disfigured other body parts of their bodies to make themselves less valuable slave property. Some slaves committed suicide to escape enslavement. There is even some evidence of parents murdering their children to keep them from having to live lives as chattels. Some newly captured slaves from Africa believed that death would cause them or their children to return home, a belief that provided additional incentive for suicide and infanticide. The resistance slaves offered to their enslavement were rarely open or violent confrontation. Rather, it was constant, steady pressure. The main goal of resistance was survival to insure the most decent life possible within an intrinsically indecent institution. Slaves rarely were able to overcome the master’s ultimate control over them, but they were able to prevent such control from becoming total. Slave resistance, flowing out of the slave’s Afro-American culture, allowed an enslaved people to nurture the spark of freedom until it could burst into flame during the civil war.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

The Nature and Forms of Commercial Organization

CHAPTER 5 The Nature and forms of Commercial Organizations Commercial organizations may be classified into three (3) general classifications: 1. Private individual ownership 2. Public or government ownership 3. Mixed or both government and private ownership 1. Private Individuals Ownership Any form of business ownership may be organized and would have certain advantages and disadvantages which the business organizer must have to evaluate. According to Martinez, Abasolo, and Carlos, the following are the questions to be considered in deciding the form of business: 1.Is it simple or difficult to form? 2. Is capital easy to rise? 3. What are the risks and the liabilities of the owners? 4. Who holds the authority and responsibility for the management and administration of the business? 5. What stability does the form offer? 6. Is it flexible? 7. What the legal status of this form is as applied to the particular business in mind? 8. What is the extent of government control? 9. What is the tax advantage of this form of organization? 10. Is the business environment favorable?Private commercial organizations or business enterprises may take the following forms of ownership: * Individual or Sole Proprietorship It is a business owned by one person. This form of ownership is small, requires but little amount of capital, and is readily established under the control of one person. It refers to an individual who owns, manages, assumes all the risks, and derives all the products or profits from a business. Advantages of Sole Proprietorship * Easiest to establish. * Easiest to terminate. * Small amount of capital is required in starting a business. Presence of personal element in managing the business. * Freedom and immediate action and control in operating the business. * Ownership of all profits. * Tax savings. * Minimum legal requirements. * High credit standing. * Business secrecy. Disadvantages of Sole Proprietorship * Limited amount of capital. * Lack of continuity. * Li mited judgment and wisdom. * Unlimited liability. * Difficulty of management. * Limitation in business size. * Limited opportunities of employees for promotion. * Difficulties in managing the day-to-day business operations. Creating a Sole ProprietorshipNo special legal procedures, permits, or licenses are required. A sole proprietorship is not limited in size by either the amount of inputs which can be used or the amount of products produced. The business can be any number of employees, additional management may be hired, and property may even be co-owned with others. Income Taxes The owner of this business pays income taxes on any business profit at the tax rates in effect for individual or joint returns. Business profits and capital gains are added to other taxable income earned to determine the individual total taxable income. Partnership A partnership is a form of business in which two or more people operate for the common goal of making profit. Each partner has total and unlim ited person liability of the debts incurred by the partnership. It is a voluntary association of two (2) or more persons to carry on, as co-owners of a business for profit. Basic Characteristics of Partnership 1. Profit and Loss: The sharing of the business profit and loss. 2. Property y or Assets: Shared control of property. 3. Management: Shared management of the business. General legal agreement of partners: 1.Each person involved participates in management decisions. 2. Assets are owned jointly. 3. Sharing of profits and loss. 4. The parties (business) operate under one name. 5. The parties have joint bank account for doing business transactions. 6. The parties keep a single set of business records. Types of Partnership 1. Ordinary or General Partnership 2. Limited Partnership Creating a Partnership Partnership can be created oral or written agreement. Oral agreement tends to have more problems than written partnership agreements. The written agreement should cover at least the following points: . Management. Who is responsible for which management decisions and how will they be made? 2. Property ownership and Contribution. It is the list the property each partner will contribute to the partnership and describe how it will be owned. Property may be owned by a partnership, or the partners may retain ownership of their individual property and rent it to the partnership. When the partnership itself owns property, any partner may sell or dispose of any asset without the consent and permission of the other partners. 3. Share of Profits and Losses.The method for calculating profits and losses and the share going to each partner should be carefully describe, particularly if there is an unequal division. Profits are generally divided in proportion to the value of the assets, labor and management contributed to the business. 4. Records. Records are important for the division of profits and for maintaining an inventory of assets and their ownership. 5. Taxation. The agreement should contain a detailed account of the tax basis of property owned and controlled by the partnership and copies of the partnership information tax returns. 6. Termination.The agreement should contain the date the partnership will be terminated if one is known or can determined. A partnership can be terminated in a number of ways: * It may specify a termination date * If no duration is fixed by the agreement any partner may terminate the partnership at will. * If not, a partnership will terminate upon the incapacitation or death of a partner, bankruptcy, or by mutual agreement between the partners. * Termination upon the death of a partner can be prevented by placing provisions in the written agreement that allow the deceased partner’s share to pass to the estate and hence to the legal heirs. . Dissolution. The termination of the partnership on either a voluntary or involuntary basis requires a division of partnership assets. The method for making this division sh ould be described to prevent disagreements and unfair division. Terminating a Partnership 1. Agreement. Between the partners or by operation of law. Usually termination under agreement comes to an end when the duration term or business is finished. 2. At Will. If no duration is fixe by the agreement, any partner may terminate the partnership at will. 3. Operation of Law.Dissolution by operation of law occurs in the event of death, bankruptcy, or incapacity of any partner. Advantages of Partnership * It could be as easily established as the sole proprietorship. * It has definite legal status. * There are more persons to manage the business and to solve its problems. * There is larger amount of capital. * Retention of valuable employees is ensured. * The combine abilities, skills, and resources of partners are great source of strength. Disadvantages of Partnership * Unlimited liability of the partners; * Managerial difficulties; Inevitable disagreement among partners may endanger the business firm; * Limitation in size; * Frozen investment; * Lack of continuity; and, * Easy dissolution. Advantages of Limited Partnership * There is a single direction of management; hence there is unity and immediate action taken upon. * The limited liability of limited partners, shall serve as good enticement of inventors resulting in larger amount of capital to expand business operations. Disadvantages of Limited Partnership * The unlimited powers entrusted to general partners maybe abused.The limited partners cannot interfere in the administration of the business firm even if there is mismanagement. Only when fraud exists or when there are clear violations of the firm agreement, can the limited partners seek for remedial or legal action. * There is a great possibility of connivance among the general partners to commit fraud against the creditors and the limited partners. * Corporations A corporation is an artificial being created by operation of law, having the rights of succes sion and the powers, attributes, and properties expressly, authorized by law or incident to its existence.Different Classification of Corporations 1. Public or Private * Public Corporations are those formed or organized for the government of a portion of the state. The objective of a public corporation is the general good or welfare. * Private Corporations are those formed for some private purpose, benefit, aim or objective, or profit. 2. Division of Private Corporations: * Stock Corporations are those who capital stocks are divided into shares and a shareholder is issued a certificate of stock which would entitle him to certain portion of the projects or dividends. Non-stock Corporations are those that do not issue shares of stock to members such as religious, civil, or charitable organizations. Other kinds of corporations may be grouped into: 1. Quasi Corporations. There are business firm that are not absolutely corporations but are considered as if they are corporations. Public b oards created by laws may fall under this classification. 2. Quasi-public Corporations. This one is engaged in rendering basic services of such public importance as to entitle it to certain privilege like eminent domain or use of public property. 3.Government-owned or controlled Corporations. Are those established by government or corporations of whom the government is the majority stockholder. 4. Dejure and de facto Corporations. * De facto corporation is used to designate associations exercising corporate powers under color of a more or less legal organization. * Dejure Corporation is one created in strict or substantial conformity with the statutory requirements for incorporation; and whose right to exist as a corporation cannot be successfully attack even in a direct proceeding for that purpose by state. . Domestic and Foreign Corporations. * Domestic Corporation is one incorporated under Philippine laws. * Foreign Corporation is one established, organized, or existing under any laws other than those in the Philippine territory. 6. Corporation aggregate and corporation sole. * Corporation aggregate is one composed of more than one member or corporator. * Corporation sole consists of one member or corporator and his successors. 7. Eleemosynary and civil corporations. * Eleemosynary Corporation is one established for charitable purposes. Civil Corporation is a corporation that is not ecclesiastical and eleemosynary whether public or private. 8. Ecclesiastical and lay corporations * Ecclesiastical Corporation is a religious organization. * Lay Corporation is established for a purpose other than religion. Compositions of a Corporation 1. Corporators. These are the stockholders or members and/or both, of the corporation. 2. Incorporators. These are the stockholders or members, and/or both, stated in the articles of incorporation as found in members of the corporation. . Members. These are the corporators of a corporation which has no capital stock. 4. Stockhold ers or Shareholders. These are the owners of shares of a corporation which have a capital stock and whose names appear in the books of corporation as the holders of a share or shares of stock of the corporation. Classes of Capital Stock 1. The Common Stock. According to Philippine laws governing the establishment of the corporation, the right of ownership and active control and participation is vested in the owners of the common stock.The common stock carries with it the power and right of voting, through which the holders have great residual ownership or power over the corporation. Common stock is the ordinary stocks representing the basic ownership. The ownership interest is divided into shares which may or may not have a par value. The par value is the amount printed on the stock certificate. 2. The Preffered Stock. The owners of preferred stock are granted special protection or advantages over the common stockholders. It carries preference as to priority in the granting of divid ends over the common stock or as to capital in case of dissolution.Upon dissolution of the corporation, for instance, the preferred stock has priority in the distribution of the assets. There are several classifications of preferred stock: * Preffered as to dividends. * Preffered as to assets. * Preffered as to both dividends and assets. * Cumulative preffered. * Callable. * Convertible. Advantages of Corporation * Limited liability of stockholders. * Large amount of capital. * Flexible ownership. * Length of life. * Efficiency of management. * Ease of expansion. * Legal entity. Disadvantages of Corporation * Taxation. Organizational expense. * Government restrictions and reports. * Lack of personal interest. * Lack of secrecy. * Charter restrictions. The Corporate Combination and Merger The Merger. Merger means the union affected by the absorbing of one or more existing corporations by another which survives and continues the combine firm. In other words, merger takes place when th e control of several corporations is vested in a single corporation, in which case stocks of the controlling corporation may be issued in place of the stocks of the other corporations.There is no new business firm. The absorbing corporation remains the same single although larger corporation. In consolidation, the consolidating corporations are dissolved, their properties and businesses transferred to a single company. Merger and consolidations may be adopted as a strategy by several companies in a given industries when they strongly agree that it is more economical and working together rather than competing with one another. * Cooperatives The word cooperative is derived from the French word â€Å"cooperari†. The word â€Å"co† means â€Å"with†.Combined with â€Å"operari† (to work, from oppose, operas, work ), it delineates the concept of â€Å"working together†. The social concept shows a process of working together and thinking together to ach ieve and enjoy the best of life. Cooperative is the dynamic form of business enterprise that embodies the philosophy of corporation. It signifies the voluntary assent of people to form themselves into a group for the promotion of their common needs by mutual action, democratic control and sharing of economic benefits of the basic of patronage by members.Republic Act No. 6938, An Act to Ordain A Cooperative Code of the Philippines, defines cooperatives as â€Å"a duly registered association of persons, with a common bond of interest, who have voluntarily joined together to achieve a lawful common social or economical end, making equitable contributions to the capital required and accepting a fair share of the risks and benefits of the undertaking in accordance with universally accepted cooperative principles. † Principles of Cooperatives 1. Open and Voluntary Membership.Membership in a cooperative shall be voluntary and available to all individuals regardless of their social, political, racial, or religious background or beliefs. 2. Democratic Control. Cooperatives are democratic organizations. Their affairs shall be administered by the persons elected or appointed in a manner agreed upon by the members. Members of primary cooperatives shall have equal voting rights on a one-member-one-vote principle: Provided however, that in the case of secondary and tertiary cooperatives, the provisions of Article 37 shall apply (Voting System): * Each member of a primary cooperative shall have only one vote.A secondary or tertiary cooperative shall have voting rights as delegate of members-cooperatives, but such cooperatives shall have only five votes. The votes cast by the delegates shall deem as votes cast by the members thereof. * No voting agreement or other device to evade the one-member-one-vote provisions, except as provided under subsection hereof, shall be valid. * No member of a primary cooperative shall be permitted to vote by proxy unless provided for spe cifically in the by-laws of the cooperative. However, the by-laws of a cooperative other than a primary may provide for voting by proxy.Voting by proxy means allowing a delegate of a cooperative to represent or vote in behalf of another delegate of the same cooperative. 3. Limited Interest on Capital. Share capital shall receive a strictly limited rate of interest. 4. Division of Net Surplus. Net surplus arising out of the operations of a cooperative belongs to its members and shall be equitably distributed for cooperative development, common services, indivisible reserve fund, and for limited interest on capital and/or patronage refund in the manner provided in this Code and in the articles of cooperation and by-laws. . Cooperative Education. All cooperatives shall make provision for the education of their members, officers, and employees and of the general public based on the principles of cooperation. 6. Cooperation among Cooperatives. All cooperatives, in order to best serve the interest of their members and communities, shall actively cooperate with other cooperatives at the local, national and international levels. Types and Categories of Cooperatives (R. A. No. 6938) 1. Types of Cooperatives. Cooperatives may fall under any of the following types: . Credit Cooperative – is one which promotes thrift among its members and create funds in order to grant loans for productive and provident purposes. b. Consumers Cooperative – is one whose primary purposes are to procure and distribute commodities on members and non-members. c. Producers Cooperative – is one that undertakes joint production whether agricultural, or industrial. d. Marketing Cooperative – is one which engages in the supply of the production inputs to members and markets their products. e.Service Cooperative – is one which engages in medical and dental care, hospitalization, transportation, insurance, housing, labor, electric light and power, communication, and other services. f. Multi-Purpose Cooperative – is one which combines two or more of the business activities of these different types of cooperatives. 2. Categories of Cooperatives. Cooperatives shall be categorized according to membership and territorial consideration as follows: 1) In terms of membership, cooperative shall be categorized into: a.Primary: The members of which are natural persons. b. Secondary: The members of which are primary. c. Tertiary: The members of which are secondaries upward to one or more apex organizations. Those cooperatives, the members of which are cooperatives shall be known as federations or unions as the case may be. 2) In terms of territory, cooperatives shall be categorized according to areas of operations which may or may not coincident with the political subdivisions of the country.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Alcohol Addiction Is The High Risk Of Relapse - 3791 Words

Alcoholic beverages are served in many restaurants, sold in many stores, and acceptably consumed in many populations. Although alcohol can become a drug of abuse, not many view it that way. According to the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (2014), about 7.2% of adults in the United States ages 18 and over have an alcohol use disorder. A variety of environmental and genetic factors contribute to the development of alcohol addiction. The variability in the causes of alcohol addiction generates variability in the response to treatment. However, what is common among all alcohol addictions is the high risk of relapse. This risk is potentially caused by the lasting changes in the brain that occur when voluntary alcohol use becomes an addiction. The neural changes that are a result of an alcohol addiction potentially put a recovered alcoholic at high risk of relapse until these circuits can be erased and replaced with healthier circuits. Not enough is known about the natur e of alcohol addiction to provide a clear cut way to replace addiction circuitry with healthier wiring, however, new research on the neural mechanisms of addiction are creating a better understanding of the effects of alcoholism. This new insight is leading to suggestions for more effective treatments. One new treatment, called cue exposure therapy, might be a significant new development because it addresses the neural changes caused by alcohol addiction and focuses on using conditioning toShow MoreRelatedAddiction Relapse : Prevention, Causes, And Recovering When It Occurs850 Words   |  4 Pages Addiction Relapse: Prevention, Causes, and Recovering when it occurs Ashley Kotowski Wayne State University CED 6720 Addiction Relapse: Prevention, Causes, and Recovering when it occurs Defining relapse can be difficult. Often times, different disciplines define it by differing characteristics. 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Both the Cognitive Behavioral therapy and Narrative Therapy model are used to help persons with a wide variety of problems (addictions being one) learn how to view their world a bit differently. Cognitive therapy helps people to look at and to change disruptive beliefs which have a detrimental impact on our behaviors, emotions and overall quality of life. Narrative therapy helps

Monday, December 30, 2019

Humor And Its Relationship With Positive Life Outcomes

Humor has been said to play a large role in our everyday lives, including having an impact on ones well-being; mainly influencing their level of self esteem. Humor is often seen as a coping mechanism for dealing with stressful events throughout a person s lifetime (Stieger, Formann, Burger, 2011). For some time there has been the circulating idea that humor is directly related to positive life outcomes, but has been supported with very limited empirical evidence (Vaughan, Zeigler-Hill, Arnau, 2014). This view is often encrypted in the minds of general society because of the constant use of jokes and sayings that acknowledge the use of humor as a way to deal with life s current circumstances; using humor as a means to cope (Leist Mà ¼ller, 2013). The problem with this view is that it does not consider that there are multiple styles of humor that can affect its relationship with positive life outcomes (Vaughan et al., 2014). 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Sunday, December 22, 2019

Routine Activity Theory, High Risk Lifestyles Theory

Sexual abuse is observed in every country in different age groups of females ,have more risk of getting victimized by known and from strangers too. Crime done by offender (teenage boys) influenced by peer group ,perform sexual assault This essay explains the application of routine activity theory in case of Rehtaeh Parson (victim) experienced sexual assault( followed by suicide) ,attempted by her friend (abuser and criminals). Routine activity theory basically originated from three theories: crime opportunity theory, victim precipitation theory, high risk lifestyles theory . Cohen and Marcus(1956 ) reported that Routine activity theory—also sometimes referred to as lifestyle theory—has proven to be one of the more useful theories†¦show more content†¦There are major 3 factors which increase the risk of crime . lack of capable guardian, caretakers are there for babies as parents are working ,neglected children, include the role of police ,home makers and poor security systems , Like internet activities ,crime is done by using browsing and using popular operating systems and web browser led to increased risk of criminal activity. Other factor like unlocked homes also give a good chance to theft to steel the expensive items from houses, steeling of expensive cars from roads, streets and houses, things which are easy to carry have higher risk of getting stolen evidenced in journal in which uncounted smaller currency was stolen with car during car wash cycle. Leaving of valuable things in open view of invitation to potential criminals . J.B Roberts(2004) states ,the criminal event is triggered by a confluence of often routine activities where the offender and victim converge in a specific setting at a particular time and place, and where there is an absence of capable management and other environmental factors present which would present unacceptable risks to the ordinary opportunistic perpetrator. Teenage boys get influenced by peer groups, living in high crime areas, engaged in risky behaviors such as taking alcohol (Siegal, Brown and Hoffman, 2013) and who are having no job and employment . these teenage boys go night and have parties , hanging and clubbing (taking drugs) these

Friday, December 13, 2019

Teacher’s Pay for Performance Free Essays

Should Teacher’s Salaries Be Based on Student’s Academic Performance? Is a student’s failure in a class an indication that a teacher or professor did not adequately perform his or her job? There are two points of view on this issue. Many will argue that teachers should be paid on a merit system, or Pay for Performance system. There are some that believe that there are too many external factors in a class room for a teacher’s salary to be based on how he or she performs in the class room. We will write a custom essay sample on Teacher’s Pay for Performance or any similar topic only for you Order Now Teacher’s pay for performance will be highlighted by first discussing what is pay for performance, next, detailing the definition of teaching, and finally, exploring the question of should teacher’s salaries be based on a student’s academic performance. Pay for performance is essentially when an employee is allowed to be partly responsible for his or her pay increase. A company will set goals as well as allow the employee to set his or her own goals and if the employee meets those goals, he or she will get a raise. These raises are based on levels of performance ranging from one to five. A level of one means that an employee failed to meet his or her expectations. A level of two means that an employee needs improvements in some areas. A of three means that an employee met his or her expectations. A level of four means that an employee exceeded his or her expectations. A level of five means that the employee far exceeded his or her expectations or as some managers imply, he or she is a â€Å"super employee†. Pay for performance is designed to inspire employees to work harder so they can obtain higher raises and bonuses if they reach a certain level. Employees may also be motivated to perform better the next year. The question remains, should teachers be on this type of merit system? Teaching is conveying knowledge in formal learning institutions, whether it is a school, K-12, or a university or college. Teachers have a major influence on a student’s life. They plant seeds of knowledge that continue to grow with a student. They support, empower, engage and care for their students. Today, most teachers are paid based on their seniority or academic degrees. Perhaps they should be paid based on their level of accomplishment and responsibility. Teacher evaluations should be based partly on student achievement data and their raises should be based on student’s academic performance. If teachers were paid based on student’s academic achievements, they would put forth more effort to provide a higher quality of teaching. Competition would be raised among teachers and a possibility of higher salaries would encourage them to perform better. If teachers were paid for their performance it might also differentiate teachers who care about their student’s performance from those who only want to collect a paycheck. On the other side of the coin, there are also reasons why a teacher’s salary should not be based on student’s academic performance. The first being that there is a lack of standard academic performance tests, which means there is no measurement criteria. There is the possibility that some teachers might give students higher grades to benefit their salaries. The strongest argument against teacher pay for performance would be that all students do not have the same level of intelligence, commitment, or determination. It may not be fair to hold a teacher responsible for a student that cannot learn or do not want to learn. Given the scenario that a teacher’s pay increases would be based on student’s academic performance, their levels of performance could range from one to five also. A level five would indicate that all students have passed the class with a grade of B or better and performed well on a standardized test. A level four would indicate that all students passed the class with a grade of C or better. A level three would indicate that 80 percent of the students passed the class. A level two would indicate that at least 50 percent of the students passed the class. A level one would indicate that only 20 percent of the students passed the class or a student has failed the class more than once under the same teacher. Teachers that perform at level one should not receive pay increases. A performance level of three or above should receive salary increases. An example of a level one performance would be if a student failed the same class two or more times or if only four out of twenty students passed a class, then that teacher or professor obviously has not imparted the knowledge to their students that they set out to convey. An example of a level three teacher’s performance would be if his or her students continuously increase their academic performance or pass standardize tests. In conclusion, I assert that teacher’s salaries should be based on their student’s academic performances. If teachers hit their levels, they should receive higher raises. It they fail their students, their salary should not increase. There are a lot of educators that would disagree with this assertion; however, given the state of our education system, a change needs to be put in place. If teachers are required to perform better and are paid better based on their performance, then students will perform better. How to cite Teacher’s Pay for Performance, Essay examples

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Globalization and Domestic Policy Change †

Question: Discuss about the Globalization and Domestic Policy Change. Answer: Introduction: Financial institution all over the world is dependent on the international financial industry as it determines strategic management decisions of the organizations. Globalization has made competition even tough in the industry, the key aim is survival and success of many financial institutions is to implement strategic partnership, which makes them more competitive and offer diverse services to their clients and consumers. It can also be observed that the immediate effects of deregulation lead to geographic diversification and changes in policies, which further results in the implementation of interstate banking restrictions and gradual reduction of intrastate. Technology and innovation play an important role in the finance industry, organisations adapt to these in order to conform to the demand of the global customers (Coleman, 2016). Some of the organisations that internationally operate in an authoritative position are: The World Bank, International Monetary Fund, European central bank, World Economic Forum etc. The assignment focuses on the strategic management and its implementation on financial industries. The essay also highlights the key features of financial industry comprised of market size, industry growth rate, competitiveness and market structure. It also analyses the external factors using Porter five forces and PESTEL analysis, focusing on its high impact on the strategic management strategy of the financial industry. In fact, this essay also deals with a real-life example of many financial companies to focus the way the external forces impact on their innovativeness and implementation of resources and capabilities. Key features of the financial industry: As per Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), financial services make up 20-30% of total service market revenue and about 20% of the total Gross Domestic Product(GDP) in developed economies like Denmark, Germany and Singapore. According to Al-Mulaliand Ozturk (2015), the most important three financial services like retail banking, life insurance and property and casual insurance generate annual revenue of approximately $6.6 trillion and have tended to grow at 6% compound annual rate over the preceding decade. International Monetary Fund (IMF) stated that the total global economy is worth $77.6 trillion in recent years. Therefore, if the financial services from banking and insurance sector are kept up to 6% growth rate for the years from 2014 to 2015, then its 2016 figure would be $13.1 trillion(Baptistaand Oliveira, 2015).On the other hand, particularly global banking industry has experienced a healthy growth rate in recent years, generating the Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 4.7% between 2016 and 2017 for reaching a value of $134.1 trillion, as per the data from MarkerLine Research Firm. This industry has global significance because global financial markets have undergone major structural changes in recent years. Due to accelerating integration and globalization, there is a prevalence of certain changes in world financial markets. Apart from this, global financial markets also recently experienced increased securitization.According to Borio (2014), these developments are also spurred due to effective mergers and acquisitions worldwide. Broadening and expansion of derivative markets are also one of a factor that makes this industry global. For examples, banks in all over Europe are merging and forming alliances on an unparalleled scale and thereby changing the banking environment and creating global networks. Competitors in banking sectors: International banks continue to grow their assets as the world economy expands. In fact, there is debate whether China's economy is bigger than the United States regarding banking industries. Banks Assets Industrial and Commercial Bank of China $3.62 trillion HSBC $2.57 trillion Table 1: Competitors in banking sectors It has been found that Industrial and Commercial Bank of China is the largest bank in the world, which has $3.62 trillion assets and $134.8 billion revenue. On the other hand, HSBC, its competitor has 1800 locations in the UK and has $2.57 trillion assets(Coleman, 2016). Competitors in Life insurance sectors: Some important competitors among global insurance companies are AXA, Zurich Insurance Group and Berkshire Hathaway. In recent years, AXA increased its foothold in Latin America and acquired 51% of insurance operations in Colombia. On the other hand, Zurich Insurance Group operates more than 170 countries in Switzerland. Its core businesses are general insurance, global life and farmers insurance. Apart from that, Berkshire Hathaway is an investment manager conglomerate which is engaged in insurance, rail transportation, finance, and retailing through its subsidiaries(Martinset al.2014). Introduction:Financial industry which is comprised of banking and insurance sectors deliberately offers effective services like financial leasing, payment services, venture or risk capital guarantees and commitments. As a result, the market size of financial industry comprises about 16.9% of global economy, as measured in GDP(Philippon, 2015). Growth: According to International Monetary Fund (IMF), total financial service makes up about 60 to 65% of total global revenue. In fact, it has found that the financial service in developed economies also raised up to 6% growth rate in recent years. As per the above figure, there is an effective comparison of a global market share of revenue of largest global investment banks in 2017. According to that, the revenue of JP Morgan is of 8.1% of the global investment banking revenue (Coleman, 2016). A financial industry like banking sectors is more like having oligopolistic market structure. It is because it is an industry, which is controlled several small firms all over the world. Some banking firms like a bank of America, JPMorgan Chase, Citigroup, Wells Frago and PNC boasted nearly 40% of their deposits, which leads to the development of financial industry altogether(Philippon, 2015). PESTLE analysis: These are the rules, framework and guidelines that are associated with the governments, financial institutions and authoritative bodies. Based on geographical locations of the organisations the management of the companies is bound by the rules and regulations which govern the company (Valdezand Molyneux, 2015). Some of the aspects which impact the organisations in this industry are: international legislations, labour regulations, trade rules and regulations in the country of operation, international relation, political stability and favorability of the government. Based on the region on operations the organisation has to follow the rules set out by authoritative organisations like the ones mentioned above (Valdezand Molyneux, 2015). For example, SAP Financial Services Forum looks into the opportunities and benefits of digitalization and explores the implementation of disruptive technologies in banking and insurance companies. Another example is Coalition Agreement in the UK, which le ads to a huge deficit in the insurance sector and disarray in a banking system, due to which there is a huge loss in sovereign debts market of UK (Valdezand Molyneux, 2015). Even due to this agreement, there are low-interest rates on financial stability and long-term impacts of quantitative easing (QE). In the industry, there are factors such as the rate of the currency in the international market, inflation rate, market and trade cycles, interest rate etc which impact the industry. The economic factors are important as they provide growth and expansion opportunities for the organisations, if the conditions are favorable then new organisations in the finance industry have scope to invest as well as operating organisations. For example: The financial crash of 2008-2009 impacts on financial operations of banking industries. Several leading banks had to deal with a problem of cyber security. Market orientation and banking structure also lead to the change in the development of financial operations of banking and insurance companies. In fact, interest rates also have some impacts on share prices in the financial services industries like banks and insurance companies. For example, HSBC bank has tax benefits with the deposit tenure of 5 years. Technology is improving, advancing with research and development and in every business industry, it plays an important role it provides scope and opportunity for the business to innovate and grow. It makes the process of Innovations in technology have played an important role in the industry, now anyone can use a card and conduct transactions form any part of the world. Core banking, online and mobile banking. Fin-tech disruptor is one of the financial technologies that mainly focused on the mobile payments to insurance. Organisations incorporate technology in the business operation which includes hardware software, internal and external services. Moreover, it can be assumed that by 2020, there will be decentralized asset ownership with the use of information technology rather than automatic turn to banks as an intermediary. According to Philippon (2015), Blockchain public ledger can be a significant part of financial institutions technology and infrastructure, as it moves from large retail sector to institutional use. 5 Forces Analysis: The 5 Forces Analysis is a tool that is used to study the intensity of the competition in the Industry at the same time it indicates scopes and opportunities that organisations operating in the industry may have. This tool was developed in 1979 by Michael Porter. This is used as a strategic management tool to develop the policies and formulate plans for the company to successfully grow in the competitive market (Ho 2014). Rivalry among Competing Firms: The competition in the market is created by the firms who provide similar kind of products and services. It is important to analyze the rate to competition in the industry because it will help the company to formulate strategic decisions better. In the global financial services market, the number of competing financial firms is limited, which makes the competitors compete for the same customers and resources. The lower storage costs also enable the competitors to bear lower risks to unload their inventory all at a time. Besides, due to the increasing growth of the financial services industry, it is evitable that all the competitors are growing in terms of revenue creation which gives a substantial reason that the competitors need not to compete to take the market share. In addition to these, the low exit barriers in the market enable the competitors to increase their profits naturally. All these factors ensure that the rivalry among the competing firms in the financial services marke t is moderately low (Porter, 2016). Threat of entry of new competitors: This is the scope of new organisations to start their business in the industry. This creates new competition as new firms bring new values and innovations to the industry. The distribution network in the global financial services market is weak and it is also very expensive to move the financial goods in the market. High capital requirement is also a barrier to the financial companies and they need to spend a lot of capital to survive in the market. Besides the introduction of the sunk costs, facing the existing big brands, inability to cope the advanced financial technologies, smaller economies of scale, and contingencies related to local government policies also make the threat of new entry in the global financial sector very low (Storey, 2016). Bargaining power of suppliers: There is a high level of competition among the suppliers in the financial services sector which has a positive impact on the sector as the suppliers cannot have bargaining leverage over the producers. Apart from that, the low concentration of suppliers, diverse distribution channels, and financial firms ability to switch suppliers reduce their bargaining power. Bedside the local government intervention makes it difficult for the suppliers to bargain for the services they offer (Minsky, 2016). Suppliers in the finance industry are can be third party service providers, hardware and software suppliers etc. Threat of development of substitute products: The substitutes are the indirect threats in the industry. The substitutes of the global financial services industry usually show lower performance, so the customers feel no urge to switch from the financial sector. Besides, the limited number of substitutes and the products and services offered by these substitutes do not let the development of substitute products pose a strong threat to the industry (Webb and Martin, 2017). Bargaining power of consumers: In the financial services sector, the customer has no bargaining power as negotiator and they also do not get much of attention when they need customization in their schemes. Low customer price sensitivity, low dependence on the distributor and large number of customer base disable the customers to have the bargaining power, but sometimes the competitors can offer services that are suitable for the customers, but the end it is the customers who need to negotiate with the terms and schemes (Shoup, 2017). Weakest force: The weakest force among these five forces is apparently the threat of substitutes. There is actually no closer substitute for the financial services around the world except for few countries such as the US and the UK where the microfinance services firms are seen as the potential substitutes for the global financial services industry. In these countries the microfinance providers cater to the low or middle income families to meet their basic needs at lower interest rates. But in many countries like India, the microfinance service providers are also treated as a valuable part of the entire financial services gamut (Shoup, 2017). Comparatively the bargaining power of consumers is a stronger force that the competitors in the global financial services industry need to respond meticulously. The consumers, nowadays, tend to have various demands such as digitization, personalization and more. The financial services around the world are also more inclined to know what the consumers really demand and they come up with different latest solutions such as integration of data as currency, automated servicing, digital services, personalization, and different channel agnostic. Apparently the weaker force is the threat of substitutes and the competitors sometimes find the substitutes profitable and they tend to follow the strategy of merge acquisition with these potential substitutes and enhance their portfolio with various offerings (Aalbers, 2017). Pertaining to the five forces, the changes in these forces in the next three years are not expected to be very significant. The finance industry is a huge industry where the competitors do not need to steal the market share as this industry undoubtedly an ever growing industry because of increasing demand from the customers and also it caters to all kinds of consumers such as business entities, corporate, middle class workers and lower class people. Besides, the current slowdown in the global economy is going to cast a negative impact on the global financial services industry (Porter, 2016). The landscape of the threat of new competitors is expected to change if the global government policies go through serious amendments. But as for now, there is no circular airing in the global financial services industry. Besides the technological advancement in the finance sector and Fintechs can also offer new opportunities for the new entrants in the industry (Storey, 2016). The supplier power in the financial sector can only change if the governments introduce any new policy, but this needs long time to implement the change. In addition to that, the technology advancement and the rise of Fintech firms are expected to change the landscape, yet a paradigm shift is not expected (Minsky, 2016). The substitute products providers are supposedly get merged with the big financial services providers in the coming three years. However, the Fintech providers are expected be an integral part of the financial entities in the world (Webb and Martin, 2017). The bargaining power of consumers in the financial services sector is supposedly increase, and to close the gap the finance sector along with the Fintech firms are expected to introduce new user friendly interfaces for smooth experiences (Shoup, 2017). Industry attractiveness: Selective Investment or Prudent Safe Investment and Growth Safe Investment and Growth Danger Zone Harvest or Divest Selective Investment or Prudent Safe Investment and Growth Danger Zone Harvest or Divest Danger Zone Harvest or Divest Selective Investment or Prudent Changes in the Companies in the Financial Industry: Innovating Resources and Capabilities Rapidly advancing technologies, evolution of customer expectations and demands, and a dynamic regulatory framework are expected to herald a new era of disruptive innovation in the global financial services industry. The financial technological innovations or the fintech innovations have successfully caught the attention of the customers, investors and the incumbents through disruptive innovations such as crypto-currencies, big data analytics, peer to peer lending and more. But the significant impact of these innovations on the global financial services industry remains opaque. The innovations in the global financial industry are supposed to stem from the following areas such as increased central banks intervention, increased concerned over data protection, increased regulatory pressure, increased transparency in asset management, increased use of Public-Private partnership, and slowdown in economic growth (Gaiet al.2017). Conclusion: One of limitations for the Fintech innovators is that it sometimes fails to create new infrastructure unless a group of financial services entities come together for building a viable ecosystem. The financial firms are also increasing their efforts to overhaul their systems and increase their customer experience through alignment with their expectations in the areas such as artificial intelligence, cloud computing and big data analytics. The financial service providers around the world need to embrace the change by partnering with the Fintech companies for achieving better profitability, market share and customer experience. 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